We have a long history of living in symbiosis with viruses. For example, most of the genes in mammals are made up of viruses.

Zoonosis is an infectious disease that can also be transmitted and transmitted between humans and animals (vertebrates, to be exact). Coronaviruses are one such example, as well as influenza. When we examine the factors that contribute to the zoonotic diseases that are currently causing problems, we find that they are due to the effects of human-induced environmental changes.

For example, there was an anthrax outbreak in a nomadic community in Western Siberia. h The anthrax was originally trapped in permafrost along with animal carcasses, but climate change caused it to melt and the anthrax came to the surface. Then the reindeer that eat the grass growing on the surface become infected. The nomads who eat the reindeer will also become infected.

There is also the story of the vultures in India. In India, cows were used for labor and not for food. The vultures ate the carcasses of the cows that were eventually thrown away. The carcasses would eventually develop anthrax, but the vultures would eat the carcasses clean faster than that, so no infection would occur. However, around 1960, diclofenac became widespread, which allow cows to be forced to work. The vultures that eat the carcasses of the cows die from the effects of the diclofenac, and the stray dogs start eating the carcasses, but the speed at which the dogs eat the carcasses is not enough to control the anthrax outbreaks, which infect the dogs and cause rabies. The stray dogs then spread rabies to other people. Even now, 20,000 to 30,000 people a year die, and 75% of them are poor. (This is ironic because the poor suffer more as a result of diclofenac, which was developed for the poor.)

Translated with www.DeepL.com/Translator (free version)

figure and convolution

When considering why “convolution” occurs, one of the problems is the convolution of the surrounding environment in the process of human growth. For example, learning your mother tongue. In this way, a person forms oneself by being “convolution” in the surrounding voice and gesture pattern.

“convolution” is to invade the formation of oneself in this way, and I found Benjamin’s slogan, which is a “model”. Benjamin thought that this “model” was a “ontogeny” problem in biology and a “phylogeny” problem in human history as well. The human talent for seeing similarities is a remnant of the once-mighty power that forces them to be similar.

Then, when we look at the figure, there is an “old” force that forces it to resemble the figure. According to Benjamin, the power of “children’s play” that imitates windmills and trains is the remnant of the magical sympathy (correspondence) that human beings had in the past with the circumstances of the universe.

To look deeply into the figure is to convolve and get convolved it in front of you through this model ability, and solve it from the inside. Then the “model” reads what was never written in its deepest part. That is the oldest reading, the pre-linguistic reading. “Read” them by “similar” to the internal organs and constellations. It is also, so to speak, “dancing” with the patterns of internal organs and constellations.





考える脳 考えるコンピューターより(google translate)

Recalling the story of the neocortex, let’s look back at this book. I’m writing with quotations.

Imagine your brain resting on a table. The first thing to notice is that the surface looks very homogeneous. It has a pinkish-gray color and is similar in shape to cauliflower with few bumps, but with numerous wrinkles. It is soft to the touch and puyo puyo. This is the neocortex. Nerve cells form a thin membrane that wraps most of the original brain tissue. Almost all activities that are considered to be the work of intelligence, such as cognition, language, imagination, mathematics, art, music, and planning, occur here. It is your neocortex that is reading this text now.

Subsequently, there is talk that all inputs to the neocortex are equivalent. However, sight is light, hearing is sound, and touch is pressure on the skin. Why are the appearance of apples, the barking of goats, the feel of baseball balls, and these different sensations equivalent?

Visual information is carried to the brain by one million fibers of the optic nerve. It quickly passes through the old-evolved thalamus in the brain and reaches the functional area in the neocortex where visual information is first processed, namely the V1 area (primary visual cortex). Sound comes in through the 30,000 fibers of the auditory nerve. It also passes through the thalamus and arrives at the AI ​​field (primary auditory cortex), which is the entrance to visual information. The sensations from the skin and body are carried from the spinal cord through a million fibers. The information is received by the S1 area (primary somatosensory area), which performs the most basic processing of tactile sensation. The functional area where sensory information enters is collectively called the primary sensory area, and is located at the lowest level in the neocortical hierarchy. The above is the main input route of information to the brain. It is also a means for humans to understand the real world.

The author likens these movements to a bundle of wires and optical fibers. Such lines are axons that extend from neurons, and the light sent through the lines is said to be a nerve signal. These signals come from various sensory organs such as the eyes and ears, but when they are converted to action potentials toward the brain, they are all treated equivalently. In other words, it is just a signal pattern. So why does the experience of seeing, hearing, and touching feel different? The reason is that each of them flows through the hierarchy of the neocortex in different ways. So, in fact, there is no kind of action potential itself. Therefore, it can be said to be equivalent. In other words, the author writes that the human brain only knows patterns.

Eric Weienmeier’s story is cited as an example of a story about perceptual equivalence. He lost his eyesight when he was three years old. He was able to see the landscape in 2003 with a device. The device converts the image captured by a small camera into a voltage for each pixel and stimulates it through an electrode stuck in the tongue. With this device, he was able to identify balls rolling on the floor and play rock-paper-scissors.

These neocortical properties, in other words, also suggest perceptual flexibility. For example, Helen Keller, who has lost two major senses, has become a better writer than most others, and the auditory cortex of ferrets is also surgically transformed into the visual cortex. If this is deduced, the world can be perceived by radar, and there can be a feeling of living in four dimensions. This story also leads to hallucinations. It can be said that what you are touching now really exists there and is not always perceived by the antennae.

Awareness and knowledge of the real world is formed by these patterns. So there is no light in my head and no sound. Information that humans perceive is limited to spatial and temporal patterns that come in from axons.

Various things have been written about this point, but the “temporal pattern” of vision comes from the fact that the sight that comes into our eyes is constantly changing. Here, the story of the movement phenomenon of the pupil called saccade left an impression on me. It is a phenomenon in which the pupil moves at high speed three times a second. If the human eye keeps staring at only one point, that viewpoint disappears, so it seems to be said to be a function to prevent it (I tried to find out why the viewpoint disappears but I wasn’t sure). In other words, even while I’m typing characters on my PC, my pupils are constantly moving at high speed, but I don’t feel that way at all. why? That’s because the brain creates identity in the visible landscape itself.

The story of creating the identity of a landscape also leads to the slogan of universal expression in the section that follows. For example, the concept (condition) that a “cat” is a “cat” is also generated in the neocortex. If various kinds of cats appear in front of us, they will be in a state of neuronal excitement in the lower layers of the neocortex. On the other hand, in the upper hierarchy, neuronal excitement is stable. The lower hierarchy processes frequent changes and small features, and the upper hierarchy keeps the whole picture.

This also means, for example, when you’re looking in one direction from a room in my house, you grasp the situation everything that I’m at home, in the living room, looking at the window view. At this time, the upper part of the neocortex has the expression of the home, the lower part has the expression of the room, and the lower part has the view of the window.

From the story of the hierarchical structure of the neocortex, first of all, the memory is not stored in one place, but is distributed and stored in the entire hierarchy. Also, when we imagine a “cat,” it is a nested sequence of the entire hierarchy of the neocortex. That is, there is no image in the brain. If anything, it is reminiscent of a constellation that connects dots.
















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